Historical Growth of Population
The Kassena Nankana Municipality consistently maintained a population increase during the Censual Years 1960 to 2010. Population of the Municipality during the Censual Year 2010 is 109,944 persons with positive average growth rate of +1.8% per annum, which is higher than the regional population growth rate of +1.2%.
This can largely be attributed to an influx of individuals from other Districts that move to the Municipality in search of job opportunities. High population exerts pressure on social and natural resources and it is imperative for the Municipality to develop strategies in addressing the population growth rate.
The growth rate of +1.8% was calculated by adding the Municipality’s population to that of the Kassena Nankana West District, since the 2000 Population Housing and Census covered both districts, it would not have been possible to get the growth rate without the summation of the two population figures.
According to the 2010 Population and Housing Census,the population of the Municipality as at 2010 was 109,994. The female population is estimated to be 56,268 people representing 51.2% while the male population is estimated to be 53,676 representing 48.8% as shown in the graph below.The Municipality’s population is predominantly female dominated.
The Kassena Nankana Municipality has both, a growing and maturing population, presenting opportunities and challenges to the Municipality. According to the 2010 Population and Housing Census, the population size of Municipality was 109,944 people. The projected population size for 2020 is 131,627 people and is likely to grow to 134,018 people by 2021.
These projections are based on a population growth rate of 1.8% assuming constant mortality and fertility rates. The increase in the overall population will call for more investment in economic and social facilities such as health services, educational facilities, agriculture and livestock sectors to provide food and employment opportunities.
With the current population growth rate of 1.8%, the Municipality would be qualified to be upgraded to a Metropolitan status by 2047.
Population of Communities
Per the 2010 Population and Housing Census figures, Navrongo (an urban area and the capital of the Municipality), expectedly had the largest population of 29,993 persons. Among the rural areas, communities with population of 1,000 persons and above are Abempengu, Akurugu Daboo, Biu, Bonia, Chaaba, Doba Kansa, Gomongo, Gongenia, Janania, Kologo Nayire, Korania, Manyoro, Manyoro Benyim, Manyoro Dambisa, Manyoro Gware, Naaga Choo, Natugnia, Nyangua, Nayagenia, Upper Gaane and Vunania.
Community population of below 1,000 persons are Akunkongo, Badayoro, Bagania, Bavugnia, Bawio, Bundunia, Digongo, Doba Agayabisi, Doba Agologobisi, Doba Atulabisi, Doba Gayingo, Doba Gingo, Doba Goro, Doba Koringo, Gerebisi, Gia Kwosongo, Kapaania, Kasigo Kologo Tuo, Kologo Zuo, Kuleningo Anyimbisi, Kuleningo Awingabisi, Kuleningo Zoongo, Lower Gaane, Lower Telania, Manchoro, Manyoro Wanjagnia, Manyoro Wura, Naaga Choo, Naaga Pingo (Peesi), Naaga Wiingo, Nangwao, Napobia, Nawogenia, Nayagenia Kunwania, Nimbasinia Bolgabia, Nimbasinia Gunia, Nyangolongo – Aniabisi, Nyangua, Pindaa, Pungu – Central, Punyoro, Sabisi Adogubisi, Sabisi Ayaregabisi, Sabisi Nyogisi, Takuru, Tampola, Tono Township, Upper Telenia, Wuru, Wusungu, Yitonia, Yogebenea (Yogbania), Yua Atizigabisi and Yua Gingiringo.
The Municipality has a high population of children, as shown in the 2010 census report, where the population between the ages of 0-14 years was 21,941 males and 21,148 females which represented 39.19% of the total population. The population between 65-99 years was 2,768 males and 4,336 females translating to 6.46% of the entire population.
This implies a higher dependency of children between 0-14 years than elderly population between 65-99 years. The Municipality should take note of this because it means that there are more people to feed, more schools to build and pressure to create more employment opportunities. This further implies greater strain on the working age to support their economic dependents (children and aged) and this does not bode well for improved social security and enhanced economic growth.
The census shows that there were 7,694 males and 7,429 females in the age cohort 0-4 years, 5,785 males and 4,970 females in the age cohort 20-24 years. This implies that transition from infant to teenage is higher for males than females and thus there is higher mortality for females than males in the Municipality. This also means that the Municipality’s health authorities should focus on the causes of infant mortality to ensure that female children transition to teenage is improved.
The Municipality’s age dependency ratio is 1:0.84 which is lower than the national age dependency ratio of 1:0.93. This implies that each worker in the Municipality cares for at least one dependent or less.
According to the 2010 Population and Housing Census data, the Municipality has a labour force of 59,751 which is 54.35% of the total population. Out of this figure, 51.52% are females while 48.48% are males.
According to the 2010 Population and Housing Census, the total number of households in the Municipality was estimated to be 19,790 households, out of which 5,690 (28.8%) are located in urban areas and 14,100 (71.2%) are located in rural areas. The Municipality has a household population of 107,435, out of which 28,924 (26.9%) are located in urban areas whiles 78,511 (73.1%) are located in rural areas.
The Municipality has an average household size of 5.4 persons per household which is less than the regional average of 5.8 persons per household but greater than the regional average of 4.4 persons per household. The extended family system accounts for the large household size in the Municipality.
The rural nature of the Municipality is reflected by the population density of 143.33 persons per square kilometer which is higher than both the national population density of 103.4 persons per square kilometer and the regional density of 118.4 persons per square kilometer.
According to the 2010 Population and Housing Census, 27.3% (29,993) of the Municipality’s populace live in urban areas whiles 72.7% (79,951) live in rural areas. The Municipality is predominantly rural in nature.
Migration (Emigration and Immigration)
According to the United Nations, reliable information on migrants is essential to develop evidence-based policies, to inform public opinion and to combat widely held misconceptions. The migrant population in the Municipality is about 16.25% (17,867) of the 2010 survey population. Out of this number in the Municipality, 43.6% stayed for less than 4 years, 26.4% lived for more than 20 years or more, 43.1% (7,703) were born elsewhere in the Upper East Region and the rest were born in other regions of the country or outside the country. For migrants born in another region, majority (33.1%) were born in Ashanti region followed by Northern region (22.3%) and Upper West region (11.6%). Also out of a migrant population of 565 from outside Ghana, 42% lived for less than 5 years, 19.3% lived for less than 10 years, 15.4% lived for less than 20 years and 23.4% lived for more than 20 years.
The migrant population constitutes a significant proportion of the Municipality’s population and a potential for development of the local economy since most of these immigrants are found in the formal and informal sector of the job market. A high influx of people in the Municipality is due to the presence of the Tono Irrigation dam which provides economic activities associated with investment and associated employment opportunities. However, migration is seasonal especially among the indigenous Kasenas and Nankanas where nearly every household interviewed had some relatives living outside the Municipality. They migrate especially during the dry season to the southern parts of the country in search of greener pastures. Most of them after the dry season return home to commence farming activities whiles others continue to hustle with great ambitions.
Poverty and Inequality
Poverty is defined as the inability to meet basic needs such as food, shelter, clothing, education and medical services. Poverty is a development challenge in the Municipality and it manifests itself in form of hunger, illiteracy, malnutrition, poor or lack of shelter and failure to access essential services such as basic health, education, water and sanitation. According to the 2015 Ghana Poverty Mapping Reports, Kassena Nankana Municipality has a low poverty incidence of between 20.0%-29.9%, poverty depth between 10.0-14.9, poverty inequality ranging from 50.0-54.9 and an estimated 20,000-29,999 poor persons.
This is reflected in the high number of dependents, high number of people in informal employment, poor housing and sanitation. The poor in the Municipality are clustered into certain social categories such as people living with disabilities, female-headed households, unemployed, unskilled and semi-skilled casual workers, HIV/AIDS victims, orphans and widows. The main causes of poverty in the Municipality have been identified as the high population growth rate, high levels of unemployment especially for the youth, food insecurity, a high number of physically challenged persons and high numbers of rural households.
Due to the cascading effects of poverty on the other sectors of the economy, the Kassena Nankana Municipal Assembly is implementing programmes and activities aimed at tackling high poverty rates and creating employment.